Tranylcypromine is a medication that is licensed for the treatment of depression in adults. It comes in a tablet form that is generally taken two or three times a day and is available by prescription. Possible side effects of tranylcypromine include drowsiness, dizziness, and dry mouth. Since there are a number of potentially lethal drug and food interactions with tranylcypromine, the drug is usually only prescribed when other antidepressants have failed to improve depression symptoms.
What Is Tranylcypromine?
Tranylcypromine sulfate (Parnate®) is a prescription medication that is used to treat depression (also known as major depression or clinical depression). Because this medication has numerous potentially lethal drug and food interactions, it is often used as a last resort, when other antidepressants have failed.
(Click What Is Tranylcypromine Used For? for more information on the drug's uses, including possible off-label uses.)
Who Makes Tranylcypromine?
Tranylcypromine is made by GlaxoSmithKline.
How Does Tranylcypromine Work?
Tranylcypromine belongs to a class of medications called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
To better understand how these medications work, it's important to understand how brain cells communicate with each other. Monoamines are special chemicals that carry messages from one brain cell to another. These messages can include information about many things, including your emotions. Some examples of the monoamines that help transmit these messages include:
- And several others.
When a message (electrical impulse) reaches the end of one brain cell, monoamines are released into the gap between the cells. Here, they quickly travel across the gap until they reach a receptor on the next cell, settling in like a key in a lock. This triggers the electrical impulse to continue through the next cell and on to its final destination.
Once the message has been transmitted, the monoamines in the gap are either reabsorbed by the first cell or broken down by an enzyme called monoamine oxidase.
If a person has low levels of monoamines in the brain, it can reduce the amount of communication between the brain cells and cause the person to feel depressed.
MAOI medications improve the communication between brain cells by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase. This increases the amount of monoamines in the brain and thus improves a person's depression.
Unfortunately, monoamine oxidase is also responsible for breaking down tyramine, a naturally-occurring chemical that affects blood pressure. MAOI medications stop the body's ability to break down tyramine and can cause a person's tyramine levels to be too high (which can be extremely dangerous). Because tyramine is found in many foods and beverages, people taking MAOI medications must follow a strict diet (see Parnate Food Interactions for more information).